New address of the article here:
I will publish long article on my blogspot.

This article is corrected basing on the one I published on FPN ( .

updated 20201104: Chullima/Chollima belongs to Chongjin.

updated 20201105: Adding something about Mangyongdae, Haeju and Sinuiju.

If I could buy the Seungri and Chullima I mentioned here, I will post the picture.

updated 20201106: Pyongsong, Pyongsam and Wonsam are added. Now, we found that there were 8 fountain pen manufacturers (including Sinuiju) in DPRK at least. Something about Hongha in 1967 were added.

updated 20201107: corrected something.

updated 20201108: something may relate to DPRK's were added. My friend, Yao, provided a photo.

I will update this article anytime I find something.

Socialist Countries' fountain pen makers supported by China or Communication between Socialist Countries about fountain pen with China






Unknown & cancelled



Communication & learning experience





I saw a table in Shanghai Foreign Affairs Chronicle, which is about the projects supported by China in 1955-1990. There are 3 fountain pen makers supported by Shanghai: Hongha Stationary Factory in Vietnam, Poland Fountain Pen Factory, Kim Anh Fountain Pen Factory in Vietnam.

By the way, according to Chronicle of Shaanxi Province Vol. 15 Light Indrustry, a fountain pen / ball pen factory for Cuba was cancelled, machines were used to found Xi'an Fountain Pen Factory.

And something about DPRK, Albania, DDR, Romania were collected by Shanghai Archives Hall.


Hongha Stationary Factory Nhà máy Văn phòng phẩm Hồng hà

Hongha Stationary Factory now it is called Công ty Cổ phần Văn phòng phẩm Hồng hà, HH for short. According to a protocol made by PRC and DRV in 1956. 7. 26, PRC would help DRV to found its own fountain pen manufacturer. Shanghai Foreign Economic Relations and Trade Annuals said it began building in 1957, the factory was handed over to DRV in 1959. 12, while shqgz said it finish building in 1959.9 and HH said it is found in 1959. 10. 1, the 10th Anniversary of PRC.

It was designed to produce 300,000 fountain pens, 14,000,000 pencils, 600.,000 bottle of ink and so on.

The brands of Hongha are TRƯỜNG SON (name of a mountain), HOÀN KIẾM (name of a lake), HỒNG HÀ (name of a river) and TRẠNG NGUYÊN (=Zhuangyuan in Chinese. principal graduate), NÉT HOA (it is for calligraphy), TRƯỜNG SA (under the Vietnamese name of Nansha Islands.)


Online Store:

NÉT HOA 300 No. 2231

From the Online Store

According to a thesis named Tổ chức Kế toán chi phí sản xuất và tính giá thành sản phẩm với việc tăng cường quản trị kinh doanh tại Công ty Văn phòng phẩm Hồng hà,, HH founded in 1959. 10. 1 and began to product in 1960. Its pencil lines were handed over to another factory in 1972. In 1981, Kim Anh was combined into HH. In 1997, it turn its name into HH stationary company.

Now it is a joint stock company.

I posted my collection of Vietnamese pens here.

The box belongs to TRƯỜNG SON 19-8, according to Voice of Vietnam,, it was produced from 1961, in memory of August Revolution in August, 1945. It based on a No. 24 model in China for student.

The pens look like Hero 616 (small size) with Hero 100-style barrel band rather than 616-style barrel band (ink window). The nib is 19.5 mm, which is the same as Hero 100/110 and 616.

According to Beiheiren' historical calendar,, HH was banned for importing to Japan by Tokyo Custom at 1967. 10. 12, because of Parker. Yokohama Custom thought HH' clips infringed Parker's trade mark, the Arrow Clip at 1967. 12. 27, so the temporary import ban applied by Parker was turned down and the import of 300 dozen of HH to Japan by trading company Sanshin Koeki (三進交易) was permitted. 

Vietnamese have their own 616 named Hồng hà 72, which have 6 colours, Black, Red, Light Purple, Sky Blue, Grass Green, Lake Blue and its name is in memory of Air Battle of Dien Bien Phu/Operation Linebacker II, according to VOV, I think it used molds provided by China. Or It is another oversea steel nib “581” Hero like 616 (small size).

Hồng hà 72

HH was aided by Wolff, which changed its name into Hero in 1966. 10.

Wolff helped train Vietnamese trainees, too.

According to an article named How Chinese Craftsmen Aid Foreign CountriesDang'an Chunqiu, 2020. 5, Zhang Shanbao, a vice director of Wolff's Component Workshop and National Model Worker in 1956, were send to Vietnam to help them in 1959. 4. Vietnamese required that HH should be found in 1 years. The support ended 2 month earlier than plan. Zhang earn Vietnamese Model Worker Medal--Anh hùng Lao động Việt Nam. And Vietnamese can produce twice of the design per annum

Zhang Shanbao (1925- )

Kim Anh Fountain Pen Factory Nhà máy Bút máy Kim anh

PRC and DRV make protocol in 1967. 10. 6.

It was designed that 1,600,000 high grade iridium pointed fountain pens per annum. 500,000 d=11mm with stainless cap, 600,000 d=10.6 with aluminum cap and 500,000 d=10.6 with aluminum cap.

Because Vietnam government turned anti-Chinese and many Chinese who living in SRV became refugee, PRC stopped supporting in 1978. 7. 3.

According to a Vietnamese thesis named Một số ý kiến đề xuất nhằm hoàn thiện tổ chức kế toán tập hợp chi phí sản xuất và tính giá thành sản phẩm ở Nhà máy Giầy Phúc Yên,, Kim Anh founded in 1976 and began to produce fountain pen in 1978. 12. 19, machines were supported by China. The product of Kim Anh were exported to Poland, Hungary, South America and so on. In 1982. 4, Kim Anh were combined into Hongha as its branch. In 1987. 10. 1, Comecon draw a conclusion that Kim Anh should be turn to produce shoes, So it turned to be Phuc Yen Shoes Factory Nhà máy Giầy Phúc Yên.

Now, it is Phuc Yen Shoes Joint Stock Company.

Its fountain pen brand may be HẠ LONG mentioned in Ngô Việt Dũng, owner of Bút máy Sao Khuê, Hanoi, the main role in the report, is the staff of Handheld, a Vietnamese forum and a former engineer of HH, who is related to TRƯỜNG SA fountain Pen.

Bút máy Sao Khuê:

Sao Khuê=Kui Xing in Chinese, means the god of examinations, and an associate or servant of the god of literature, Wen Chang.


Chongjin Fountain-pen Factory 청진만년필공장

According to Renmin Ribao 1961. 3. 29, PRC and DPRK made an agreement in 1960. 10. 13 and a protocol in 1961. 3. 28, China would support some factories founded by DPRK government including a fountain factory.

A document said that fountain pen factory project belonged to Shanghai in 1961. 7. 7.

Zhang Shanbao went to Chongjin in 1961. 6 and he earned Chollima medal of DPRK.

Another document in MOFA of China said that DPRK wanted to cancel 4 factories including fountain pen factory in 1963. 6. 13.

Zhang Shanbao in DPRK

MS. Lu said she work in Chongjin Changpyeong-Dong Fountain Pen Factory after graduated from high school before DPRK's anti-Chinese activities in the early era of Great Proletarian Culture Revolution. source: Online DPRK Chinese Student Union Forum,

South Korea's Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade (KIET) published an report in 2014, there were 4 fountain pen factories in DPRK and one named Chongjin Fountain Pen Factory in Chongjin.

According to a Chullima fountain pen sold on ebay, Chullima/Chollima belongs to Chongjin.  조선청진 (朝鮮清津) on the guard means Chongjin, Korea.

It is possibility that it is named after Zhang's Chollima medal.

Sinuiju Disabled Soldiers' Stationary Factory 신의주영예군인학용품공장

According to KIET, there is a factory name Sinuiju Disabled Soldier Stationary Factory in Sinuiju.

A University of Liaoning's student thesis named How light industry, textile industry and electronics industry develop during adjustment in Dandong by Wang Qiuke, who graduated in 1981 said that the Responsible Secretary of the North Pyongan Province Party Committee of the Workers' Party of Korea asked Dandong Fountain Pen Factory (Golden Dragon) for drawing of a machine invented in 1979 when his visit in Liaoning.

In the year 1979 according to Renmin Ribao. I do not find any visiting from North Pyongan Province in 1980 in news or chronicle. The Responsible Secretary was Kim Pyong-ryul 김병률,  who was President of the Supreme Court of North Korea between 1998-2014 (he died in 2013)

Dandong Fountain  Factory was named Dandong Sino-Korea Friendship Fountain Pen Factory in Chinese and Korean ,1983. I do not know whether it was related to providing drawing of the machine.

Pyongyang Fountain-pen Factory/ Mangyongdae Disabled Soldiers' Fountain-pen Factory 만경대영예군인만년필공장

According Dandong Yearbook 2002, Dandong Fountain Pen Factory investigate a fountain pen factory in DPRK. And in the yearbook 2004, Dandong Fountain Pen Factory said it founded a long time partnership with Pyongayang Fountain Pen Factory and Sinuiju Trading Company.

The only fountain pen factory in Pyongyang is Mangyongdae Disabled Soldiers’ Fountain-pen Factory refer to KIET.

South Korea website CyberNK introduce the factory here:, The factory locates on Kwangbok Street, Mangyongdae- guyok, Pyongyang City. It mainly produce fountain pen. In 1952. 5, it was founded as Taedong 2.8 Disabled Soldiers’ Cooperative, when Mangyongdae belonged to Taedong County. In 1966, it changed its name into Mangyongdae Disabled Soldiers’ Fountain-pen Factory. The factory later moved to Kwangbok Street and finished building in 1990. 12.

Mangyongdae and Pyongyang are its products. Seungri/Sungri is made in Pyongyang, so does it.

According to 2019 Directory of Northern Institutions (2019 북한 기관별 인명록) by South Korea's Ministry of Unification, the secretary of the Party committee is  Park Jong-kyu, manager is Lee Ki-chan, Chief Engineer is Lee Hyuk.

Mangyongdae's full name is Chullima Mangyongdae Disabled Soldiers' Fountain-pen Factory according to a Mangyongdae fountain pen sold on Polish shopping site

Bruno Taut's articles about DRPK's fountain pen, Chollima and Mangyongdae.

You can see 조선청진 (Chongjin, Korea) on the guard.

The sac-based filling looks like a Golden Star for exporting to Japan.

Golden Star for exporting to Japan
From Yao

The Japanese Blog shows Mangyongdae and Chollima with Youtube video.

Andrew Lenskiy's Blog about Pyongyang. 

They are "Triangle Nib" in China or "Roof Nib" in Japan.

Other factories without Chinese support

According to Content development of S&T Organization and R&D Trends in North Korea by KIST (, there are four other fountain pen named  Kanggye Disabled Soldiers’ Fountain-pen Factory 강계영예군인만년필공장,  Haeju Disabled Soldiers’ Fountain-pen Factory 해주영예군인만년필공장, Wonsam Fountain-pen Factory 원산만년필공장 and Pyongsam Fountain-pen Factory 평산만년필공장 in DPRK.

An essay named 북한 장애인복지 현황에 따른 남북교류 방향 by 정지웅 (배재대학교) , 2016, said that there were Pyongsong Fountain-pen Factory 평성만년필공장 in Pyongsong.

The secretary of the Party committee in Haeju Disabled Soldiers’ Fountain-pen Factory is  Kim Duk-su according to 2019 Directory of Northern Institutions (2019 북한 기관별 인명록) by South Korea's Ministry of Unification. 

Like PRC, DRV or SRV, DPRK also exported fountain pen to East Europe.


Poland Fountain Pen Factory/ Częstochowskie Zakłady Materiałów Biurowych (CZMB)

Chinese called it Poland Fountain Pen Factory 波兰金笔厂 in Chronicle and documents.

CZMB's brand is Zenith.

According to Shanghai Foreign Affairs Chronicle, PRC and PRL made protocol in 1961. 3. 29, one day after the protocol with DPRK. The factory is designed to produce 150,000 Model 100, 150,000 Model 581, 10,000 Model 215, 10,000 Model 26,25,000 Model 100A, 150,000 Model 215A per annum. 100A and 215A are mechanical pencils, the other are gold nib fountain pens. Chinese only needed to provide machines and molds. In 1962. 11, the project finished.

Shanghai Foreign Economic Relations and Trade Annuals provided more details.

More than 50 technicians from more than 20 factories and institutes designed the machines and molds. They were produced in 9 factories which were located on Shanghai, Wuxi and Hangzhou. Chinese provided 100 machines, 108 molds, 5084 components of machine or molds, components of 5 kinds of GOLD nib fountain pen including “215” Lucky, “100” Hero, “581” Hero. The factory would produce 300,000 fountain pens and 10,000,000 pencils per annum. Polish friends pay 100,000 Rbl, about 220,000 Yuan as protocol, while they costed Chinese 713,600 Yuan, about 324000 Rbl. The project finished in 1962.12.

Wyborcza has a free article here to indroduce the history of CZMB. (,121681,20301008,zenith-najslynniejszy-dlugopis-polski-ludowej-historia-z-prl.html)

At the beginning, in 1934, Omega Fountain Pen Factory was found by M. Szaja and A. A. Wrocławski.

In 1949, the factory was nationalized.

In 1951. 1. 1, Omega combined with some other paper product factories to found CZMB.

In 1954, paper product department belonged to a new factory. Only fountan pen factory remained.

In 1960s, PRL decided to create Poland Fountain Pen, so Częstochowa was chosed. Plastic engineer Józef Koszkul (now, we should call him Prof. Józef Koszkul) became the person in charge. Even though Chinese provide machines, the nibs of “Polish Parker” were developed by Józef Koszkul, Eugeniusz Helm and Jan Frymus. They formally produce fountain pen in 1965. They got a patent about nib slitting by using softer metal in 1967.

Prof. Józef Koszkul

Józef Koszkul said that Chinese did not provide introduce of the machines, and they often needed to be repaired. The first model  fountain pen after PRL bought Chinese were produced in 1965 basing on Chinese model. There were popular with nice quality. 

However, Józef Koszkul bought 1kg of GOLD from Mint of Poland to try producing GOLD nib but failed. "Precious metal is too soft." So CZMB decided to use stainless to produce nib.


After privatization, CZMB belonged to many company including Monami from South Korea. Now it belongs to Astra, a Polish company. The former workers made an protocol with Astra to produce Zenith fountain pen in some room of former CZMB., said that in 1947, Omega Fountain Pen Factory belonged to Rozenwajg, the tenant.

Wyborcza provides photos of some of CZMB products.

Before modernization.

After modernization.

Zenith-2 is Model 581 with a different stainless jewels and Late Model 215 style double pressure bar guard. It is early version which is with arrow clip.

blizzardboy's Early Zenith-2

Early Zentih 2

 Late Zenith 2

Muzeum użytkownika Hajer on said that Late Zenith 2 (13.5cm) is 1 cm longer than the Early one (12.5cm).

Zenith 1 is 14.3cm, I think it based on Model 100.

I do not find Polish Model 26 and Model 215.

Zenith 9 looks cheap.

Brutto’s Zenith 9


The interview with Józef Koszkul by Wyborcza made a mistake that China did not get Parker factory in China or drawing till 1979, Parker and Hero wanted to cooperate on Parker 45 and years ago Lishui bought machines and molds from Parker's Dongguan Factory in rumor. There was a document about the investigation about production in Częstochowa and project settlement in 1964. And Chinese accepted Polish trainees in 1965.

There was pen store named Parker (Fountain Pen) Company in Shanghai own by Niu Yongji钮永集, who founded Life永生 in Parker Company's North Szechwan Road Branch, Shanghai, 1948. Life changed its latinization from English word “Life” to Cantonese “Wingsung” in 1956 after it was mergered by Xinhua. Because there was another brand named Life from Japan on market in southeast Asia. Xinhua changed its named into Wingsung in 1980s. 

Parker Company Founded in 1944. 5
Ad from Shen Bao

Life No. 51 in 1955. 2. 20, Guangming Ribao

It is said that the earliest Parker 51-style Life No. 51 was produced in1954.

Watson, another fountain pen maker, was said that it was founded by Gwok Pui Gei(郭培基), who was the former director of DODGE & SEYMOUR (CHINA), LIMITED's Parker Department and was said learned fountain pen repairing from George Safford Parker. The first Chinese hooded nib fountain pen was made by Diamond Fountain Pen Factory in 1944, whose consultant is Gwok Pui Gei

Watson's ad in 1941, Xinwen Bao

"......4th, Engineering and design were made by Gwok Pui Gei, the former director of DODGE & SEYMOUR (CHINA), LIMITED's Parker Department ......"

Diamond No. 51 on 1944. 10. 5, Dongfang Ribao
Diamond in 1947, Qianxian Ribao

"Products were checked by the Fountain Pen Specialist Gwok Pui Kei himself. Written smoothly without any disadvantage about Ink leaking "


A document said that Shanghai Pen & Plastic Company, the administrator of pen and plastic factories in Shanghai took part in aiding Albania. I do not know whether there was pen factory aided by China in Albania or not.


Cuba Fountain Pen & Ball pen Factory→ Xi'an Fountain Pen Factory 西安金笔厂

China also planned to support Cuba in 1963. However, according to Chronicle of Shaanxi Province Vol. 15 Light Industry, Light Industry Department decide to hand the machines over Shaanxi Province, and Xi'an agreed to found Local-Administered State-owned Xi'an Fountain Pen Factory in 1966.

In 1966. 9, Low rate initial production.

In 1967, formal production.

1967-1969, only normal iridium pointed fountain pen. Yanhe延河

In 1969, high grade iridium pointed fountain pen. Xianhe仙鹤

In 1976, fountain pen without iridium. Must be Youyi/Friendship友谊, for exporting. Notice that they are not Youyi/Friendship in about 1956 with iridium made by Rockman in memory of the cooperation between Rockman and Youlian (in Harbin. Founded by Rockman and local government.).

From 1986, cooperating with Hero to produce Hero 258 and Hero 611. Nibs and feeds were provided by Hero.

According to Shaanxi Yearbook 1989, Hero 258 were formally produced. Phoenix triumph nib high grade iridium pointed fountain pen were put into market.

Shaanxi Yearbook 1990, Hero 611's mold design was finished.

Shaanxi Yearbook 1992, Xi'an cooperated with Hero, Jianhua stationary in Gangxia Town, Wuxi(later it became Wenda, aka. Lujiatang Village-owned Pen Component Factory) for components, Ballpen branch in Mi County, Zhengzhou, and Hong Kong YUE CHUEN for chain roller.

Shaanxi Yearbook 1993, asking for Japanese stationary brand Zebra for cooperation. Founding branch with YUE CHUEN.

Shaanxi Yearbook 1995, production stopped.

Xi'an Yearbook 1999, Xi'an Wanchengshang Property Company merged Xi'an Fountain Pen Factory.

Romania, DDR and USSR

Romania send investigation group about fountain pen to China in 1959-1960.

DDR send exports to investigate Chinese fountain pen, ball pen and daily hardware in 1966-1967.

China learned Accordion Filing from Soviet Union. 

In Renmin Ribao 1956. 10. 24, Fountain Pen New Compounents, Wolff learned Soviet advance experience and succeed in producing accordion ink sac.

Wang YX, A few work for improving quality in fountain pen industryChinese Light Industry, 1956, 15: 9-11 said in the National Fountain Pen Industry Professional Conference, 1956, the first one was that Soviet accordion sac should be promoted. It had been tested and it could increase ink capacity to 1.4-1.8 cc.

Longin, Guangming, and early Lucky's model 215 used Soviet accordion sac, so did Wingsung's model 570